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Fire prevention measures for steel structures

To overcome the shortcomings of fire prevention in practical applications of steel structure materials, fire prevention treatment must be carried out, with the aim of increasing the fire resistance limit of the steel structure to the limit range specified in the design specifications. Below, the editor will introduce the fire protection measures for different steel structures.

1. Expansion material. The use of steel structure fireproof coating to protect components has the advantages of good fire and insulation performance, and construction is not limited by the geometric shape of the steel structure. Generally, auxiliary facilities do not need to be added, and the coating quality is light, with a certain aesthetic decorative effect. It belongs to modern advanced fire prevention technology measures.

2. Outsourcing layer. It is to add an outer layer on the surface of the steel structure, which can be cast in place or sprayed. The outer layer of cast-in-place solid concrete is usually reinforced with steel wire mesh or steel bars to limit shrinkage cracks and ensure the strength of the shell. The spraying method can apply sand pumps to the surface of steel structures at the construction site to form a protective layer. The sand pumps can be lime cement or gypsum mortar, or can be mixed with perlite or asbestos. At the same time, the outer layer can also be made into prefabricated panels using perlite, asbestos, gypsum, asbestos cement, and lightweight concrete, and fixed to the steel structure using adhesives, nails, and bolts.

3. Shielding. Steel structures are installed in walls or ceilings composed of refractory materials, or components are enclosed in the gaps between two walls. As long as a small amount of refractory material is added or not added, the purpose of fire prevention can be achieved.

4. Water filling, filling the hollow steel structure with water is an effective protective measure against fire. This method can keep the steel structure at a lower temperature during a fire, circulate water within the steel structure, and absorb the heat of the material itself. The heated water can be recycled after cooling or replaced by cold water introduced by pipelines.

The use of steel structure materials in high-rise buildings is becoming increasingly widespread, which requires us to increase the fire protection of building materials when designing buildings to enhance their fire resistance limit, and to develop necessary emergency plans within the building to reduce casualties and property losses.